For several years, more and more residents from Ukraine have been coming to Poland permanently or for a specified period, usually around 12 months minimum. The reason for such a turn of events were the main earning goals, which motivated many employees from Ukraine, both with higher and lower qualifications. However, along with the economic development of Ukraine and other European countries, many Ukrainians decide to move further to Western Europe or return to their country. It is therefore worth knowing what are the other factors that motivate Ukrainians to leave Poland, and how to prevent it.
According to various studies and the opinions of many agencies and analyzes, the main reason why Ukrainians leave Poland is the possibility of going to Western European countries for work and to improve the quality of life . The inhabitants of Ukraine, observing the situation in Poland, decide to go to countries such as Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium or the United Kingdom mainly due to the possibility of earning several times more per currency than they could earn in Poland.
In addition, there are also a number of additional reasons that motivate Ukrainians to leave Poland. Additional reasons include:
- Better social conditions – mostly in Western European countries, employees from Ukraine (especially those with high qualifications) can count on much better social benefits and tax reliefs than in Poland;
- Simplified administrative process – according to the latest research, the administrative process for registering and legalizing the stay of an employee from Ukraine in Poland in Voivodship Offices lasts from 6 months to even two years in extreme cases. Therefore, many Ukrainian citizens decide to travel to other countries where these procedures are much more simplified and the whole process is much faster;
- Dishonest employers – in the polls, many Ukrainians also indicated the fact that their motive for leaving is the desire to earn money legally. More and more employers offer illegal work, ie without paying, for example, insurance, health or income tax contributions, and deteriorating housing conditions for employees from Ukraine. There are often situations in which about 10-15 people live in an apartment for a maximum of 3-4 people, or people from Ukraine rent apartments on the balcony.
According to the latest statistical data on employees from Ukraine carried out by various institutes and universities in Poland, the situation with employees from Ukraine is more and more dramatic. According to the research of many surveys, the results turn out to be similar – approx. 45-50% of current employees from Ukraine want to go to work by 2022. This means that in the next two years, the Polish labor market will be about 800,000 (or, according to some calculations, about 1 million).
Most of the respondents chose Germany as their destination country or in the near future. Another country equally attractive for employees from Ukraine is the Czech Republic, then Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, France and the United Kingdom. In turn, only every fourth citizen of Ukraine declares the continuation and general satisfaction with work in Poland. 33% of Ukrainian citizens from Railways do not plan to leave Poland in detail, but if an interesting job offer matching their qualifications appears, they will most likely consider leaving Poland.
What are the consequences of the departure of Ukrainian citizens from Poland?
Contrary to all doubts, the problem of Ukrainians making decisions about leaving Poland has very serious consequences. These are primarily economic and economic consequences. According to estimates for 2019, thanks to employees from Ukraine, there was a noticeable increase in some sectors of the economy. They include, above all, construction, hotel industry, catering services and industrial production. It is estimated that if only 500,000 Ukrainians leave Poland, Poland’s GDP may drop by as much as 1.6%.
As a result, with the decline in the number of economically active people and the decline in GDP, it will also be possible to achieve disturbing changes in investments . Due to the fact that there are fewer qualified people in a given position and fewer people on the labor market, more companies and production plants will move their headquarters and invest in other, more attractive places.
Apart from the economic and financial consequences, there are also moral consequences associated with the frequent departures of Ukrainians from Poland. Ukrainians usually come with their entire families or some of their family members to Poland. When deciding to move further to Western Europe, they may not decide to return to Poland. Moreover, they can pass information on working conditions in Poland to their relatives, family and friends. As a result, such information can reach a much larger group of people. This, in turn, makes it possible for people not only from Ukraine but also from the entire Eastern Europe to decide to go directly to the countries of Western Europe.